But in his Metaphysics of Morals he offers us a short but interesting passage about wine, spirits, and opium. I will not conclude that the Kantian view provides answers to all the open questions of current debates about cognitive enhancement.
However, persons are also essentially characterized by their capacities of committing themselves to overcoming these inner obstacles by imposing a corresponding duty on themselves. Robert Johnson believes that it does.
They always have to face a trade-off between different options of improving themselves.
Moreover, the clarification of this duty to ourselves throws light on how we come to have duties toward anyone at all.
The final chapter of the book argues this is the case by focusing on the notion of an ability and providing an account of abilities. The final section applies the test to the duty of self-improvement.
As imperfect duties allow for latitude the question how the maxims that are formed according to these duties are to be applied in particular cases has to be answered by casuistry, which is always a tricky business cf.
However, in this case it is a difference within the mental capacities of the agent, and it thus probably has a greater impact on the way he can see and respect himself and his own mental activity of learning and thinking. Kleingeld Bostrom and Sandberg On the Kantian account of self-improvement Johnson develops, practical reason obligates us to set a goal of self-improvement as an end, which means that neglecting to take genuine strides to develop our natural capacities is a moral — not merely prudential — failure.
APA And as the capacity to establish and fulfill duties to oneself is the condition to fulfill duties towards others according to Kant, this is an important prerequisite of being fair to others.