Moreover, as outlined recently by Joram Piatigorskythose responsible for deciding which research gets funded, from policymakers to members of review panels, should remember that the answers to scientific questions cannot be known in advance and that these questions and answers often lead to advances in scientific knowledge and scientific practice that are as revolutionary as they are unimaginable and unpredictable.
Although we outline here events that occurred in the Cormier lab, Frederick Tsuji also has written an informative article from his perspective regarding the history and cloning of the GFP gene. GFP reporter genes are easily identified and measured, usually by their fluorescence. In the organism, however, the energy from the excited state of the substrate is transferred nonradiatively with high efficiency to GFP, which then emits the green light seen when living Renilla or Aequorea are stimulated.
Such substrates have been used to detect caspase activity and cytochrome P activity, among others.
However, all characterised luciferase-luciferin reactions to date have been shown to require molecular oxygen at some stage. Biologists think that some species of sharks and whales may take advantage of defensive bioluminescence, even though they are not bioluminescent themselves.
Some bioluminescent organisms produce synthesize luciferin on their own. This allows luciferase to detect the efflux of ATP from the cell and will effectively display the real-time release of ATP through bioluminescence. Light emission in some bioluminescent bacteria utilizes 'antenna' such as 'lumazine protein' to accept the energy from the primary excited state on the luciferase, resulting in an excited lulnazine chromophore which emits light that is of a shorter wavelength more bluewhile in others use a yellow fluorescent protein YFP with FMN as the chromophore and emits light that is red-shifted relative to that from luciferase.
Phosphorescence is similar to florescence, except the phosphorescent light is able to re-emit light for much longer periods of time.
By the time the prey sees the enormous, dark jaws of the anglerfish behind the bright esca, it may be too late. Not all these organisms synthesize coelenterazine: some of them obtain it through their diet.